sheet music on music stand“Expertise with sight-reading belongs at the top of your list of priorities.”
The Musician’s Way
, p. 99

Musicians who sight-read fluently enjoy numerous artistic and professional advantages.

Professionally, because they can perform with minimal rehearsal, they’re the first to be contacted when opportunities arise.

On the artistic side, they’re more versatile than weak readers due to the fact that they can readily assimilate diverse styles of music.

In spite of those benefits, I’ve observed that countless music students neglect to practice sight-reading.

Why the neglect? In my experience, many students don’t know how to develop their reading skills, become discouraged by their lack of improvement, and then quit working on their reading.

I’m convinced that fluency with sight-reading can be attained by any musician with adequate visual acuity, but it takes smart, persistent work to build up reading skills.

To help aspiring performers become fluent readers, below I sum up crucial things to emphasize in sight-reading practice.

To be clear, the term “sight-reading” refers to the accurate, expressive performance of an unfamiliar music score with no more than a minute or two to scan.

Sight-reading refers to the accurate, expressive performance of an unfamiliar music score with no more than a minute or two to scan.

How to Practice Sight-Reading

1. Start with Elementary Material

Only accessible music enables us to acquire habits of fluency. All too often, though, students unwisely choose to sight-read complex material.

If your reading skills need upgrading, opt for elementary music, and then step up the difficulty over an extended period.

Ideally, consult a teacher who can evaluate your skills and recommend suitable material. Also strive to assemble vast amounts of sight-readable music so that you never lack for scores.

2. Practice Sight-Reading Daily

Sight-reading skills require ongoing reinforcement if they’re to become second nature.

I advise ambitious students to practice reading a minimum of 15 minutes daily (during my youth, I practiced reading 30 minutes a day for years). Even when your practice time is limited, try to carve out 5 minutes.

Photo of Zoom H4n Recorder

Zoom H4n Recorder

In addition to reading on your own, try to gather weekly with one or more colleagues to read ensemble music – doing so will bolster your skills, motivation and knowledge of repertoire.

You might also record and then review portions of your sight-reading practice.

3. Instill Fundamental Habits

Employ the following habits whenever you sight-read. These are crucial habits that enable expert music readers to excel.

  • Scan first. I advise using a consistent scanning procedure, which I detail on page 101 of The Musician’s Way. In brief, when scanning, promptly identify a composition’s structural and expressive elements – especially rhythmic, melodic, and harmonic ones – and make note of any repeat or navigation signs.
  • Count mentally. When sight-reading, our primary task is to maintain the rhythmic flow. Therefore, we should use a metronome in practice, internalize the pulse, and mentally count in line with the musical context.
  • Look ahead. Be sure that you digest at least one note group ahead of the one that you’re playing or singing. Also, adjust the span of your eye fixations according to the musical context – the simpler the music or faster the tempo, the larger the span of notes we see at once. More info about eye movements during sight-reading can be found in this well-referenced article on Wikipedia.
  • Keep going. When you flub, rather than interrupting the motion, keep the pulse intact and your eyes ahead. If a florid passage exceeds your ability, either omit it or just execute the notes on the main beats.
  • Express the music. Expert sight-readers are artistic readers. So let’s faithfully express the character of everything we read, giving expression markings equal importance as pitches and rhythms.
  • Minimize effort. Insist on ease whenever you read. Even when the going gets tough, release tension and be positive. When we steadfastly emphasize ease in our practice, easefulness becomes our default habit in practice and on stage.

The Musician's Way book cover
See Part I of The Musician’s Way for many more strategies to improve sight-reading and music practice skills.

Related posts
The benefits of accessible music
Habits of excellence
Mental imaging
The power of specific goals
Rhythmic precision

© 2011 Gerald Klickstein
Photo licensed from Shutterstock