photo of woman grimacing due to loud music“Like visual artists who learn to work safely with toxic paints and chemicals, musicians need the expertise to handle high-intensity sounds.”
The Musician’s Way,
p. 283

We musicians fundamentally rely on our hearing, yet music school curricula have scarcely addressed the topic of hearing conservation.

As a result, most music students learn next to nothing about hearing protection nor how to deal with the dangerously high sound levels they’ll encounter in and out of school.

It’s an unfortunate situation because hearing loss is permanent and 30-50% of professional musicians report hearing problems.

Making matters worse, many collegiate ensembles rehearse and perform at exceedingly high sound levels (e.g., pep bands at basketball games), so, in effect, some ensemble directors model a reckless disregard for hearing health.

Adding to those problems, in the US, entertainment businesses are exempt from the regulations that protect workers in other industries from noise-induced hearing loss.

Consequently, professional musicians such as those working in orchestras, clubs and pit bands are routinely exposed to injurious sound levels. Audio engineers, too, are at risk.

There is some good news: Owing to changes in music school accreditation standards, educators are beginning to touch on hearing conservation. Still, with a few exceptions – e.g, the University of N. Texas and UNC-Greensboro – efforts are cursory and insufficient.

With all this in mind, it’s up to us musicians to acquire the know-how we need to safeguard our hearing.

The following 10 tips help us reduce our sound exposure in both musical and non-musical activities. See Chapter 13 of The Musician’s Way for additional important details.

10 Ways to Reduce Sound Exposure

1. Measure Sound Levels
A sensible first step is to use a meter to measure the sound levels in the settings where we practice and perform. The American Recorder Technologies Sound Level Meter is an excellent low-cost option. Alternatively, in early 2017, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) released a free sound level meter app for iOS devices.

With information about sound levels in hand, we can begin to calculate safe exposure times. See p. 280 of The Musician’s Way for a table showing numerous sound levels and their corresponding NIOSH-recommended safe exposure times.

2. Practice & Perform at Lower Volumes
Another basic action involves decreasing our volume because, in truth, many of us play louder than necessary. Some musicians can also employ mutes now and then during solo practice; drummers can use lightweight or soft-tipped sticks.

For ensembles, researcher Kris Chesky encourages conductors to emphasize softer playing, mix in dynamic contrasts and restrict peak levels to musically appropriate moments.

3. Intersperse Louder and Softer MusicThe Musician's Way book cover
We should organize rehearsals and performances so that boisterous pieces are framed by more tranquil ones. It’s also vital that we take breaks in quiet spaces to give our ears a rest.

4. Practice Efficiently
In solo practice, when we establish clear interpretive and technical maps, we optimize our learning and minimize the need to repeat material. Part I of The Musician’s Way delineates strategies that increase efficiency in both solo and ensemble practice.

5. Use Earplugs at Noisy Events
If we plan to attend sporting events, dance clubs, rock concerts, or fireworks exhibits – or if we operate power equipment – we should consistently use earplugs and/or sound-blocking headphones.

6. Modify Acoustical Environments
When a meter shows excessive levels in our rehearsal spaces, along with reducing our volume, we might install sound-absorbing materials, move to larger spaces, and employ other tactics as described on pages 284-286 of The Musician’s Way.

We should use a meter before and after modifications to document any changes in sound levels.

7. Turn Down the Stereo
We should always listen to recorded music at moderate volumes. That said, if we turn up for a favorite tune, we need to remember to turn down afterward.

What’s more, when traveling on extended trips, we should switch off the music for long periods rather than leaving it on nonstop.

8. Hum
A bonus tactic to lessen the impact of impulse sounds is to hum. When we vocalize, a muscle attached to the stapes bone in the middle ear contracts into a position that hinders sound waves from penetrating to the inner ear (the stapedius reflex). By humming, we get at least a few decibels of attenuation for several seconds, albeit the degree and duration of the effect vary among individuals.

If we expect a cymbal crash, let’s say, we can begin humming just prior to the bang and carry on humming throughout. For a few people, though, such vocalizing yields no effect, so we can’t count on humming as an everyday technique but rather use it as an emergency maneuver.

9. Report Problems & Ask for Help
If you’re concerned about the sound levels in the settings where your ensemble practices and performs, consult with teachers, colleagues, and music directors to identify and remedy problems.

For example, if you feel that ensemble volumes are excessive, or if you experience tinnitus or muffled hearing during or after a rehearsal, report it.

Sometimes, though, when we musicians get together in large groups or for long periods, our sound levels inevitably exceed safe limits. That’s where earplugs come in.

10. Keep Earplugs or In-Ear Monitors Handy
During rehearsals and performances, most of us, with the exception of percussionists, use earplugs as a last resort because we don’t play as well when wearing them and we don’t like how our music sounds with plugs in our ears.

Even so, when no other protective strategy is available, low-cost earplugs and the newer electronic earplugs remain our most practical options (costlier custom-fitted plugs suit some musicians). Performers of amplified music do well to purchase in-ear monitoring systems.

*  *  *

Lastly, we should keep in mind that hearing conservation is a complex subject. The suggestions compiled here don’t encompass everything that we need to know, nor do they don’t constitute medical advice.

If you’re concerned about your hearing, consult an audiologist to obtain a comprehensive evaluation.

In fact, all of us should obtain audiograms to document our hearing status and then have our hearing checked periodically to monitor our hearing health.

Learn more in Chapter 13 of The Musician’s Way as well as via the hearing conservation resources at

Related posts:
The 12 Habits of Healthy Musicians
Appreciating Healthy Hearing
Hear Today. Hear Tomorrow.
Heeding the Signs of Injury

© 2017 Gerald Klickstein
Adapted in part from p. 286-288 of The Musician’s Way
Photo © Gang Liu, licensed from

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